Lots of good advice given here. Here are my $0.02
1) 100-150 yards is not difficult. Your 30-30 barrel should be capable of deer and moderate hogs out to that range with the right load/bullet.
2) while there are lots of great cartridges mentioned, if you want to go much past 200 yards, you will want to make sure that the combination you choose is up to the task (muzzle velocity and bullet combination in a factory load)
For example. I'm playing with a striker in 308 with a 15" barrel. Shooting the same bullet that I chronoed in a friends rifle (~26" barrel I think) I drop from 2729 fps to 2476 fps with a 150gn FMJ). If I was shooting the 150gn barns TSX in a factory load and got the same velocity (2476fps), then ballistics calculators predict that I drop below 2000 fps right about 210 yards. I'm not sure what the minimum velocity is for that bullet, but most spitzer (barnes included) have minimum recommended velocities of 1800-2000 fps). I wouldn't use that load past 200 yards to avoid poor terminal performance.
3) Now, if you hand load, You can load a lighter for caliber bullet, achieve a higher muzzle velocity and increase your range a bit. If you go too light, then the poor BC bites you in the butt. You can also choose bullets that have lower minimum velocity requirement (look at those bullets used in 300 black out or 458 socom for a start). Admittedly, this is easier if you hand load or identify an available factory loading before you settle on a cartridge/caliber.
4)My last thought on the subject is not so easy for me to articulate concisely. For a given maximum chamber pressure, the muzzle velocity of a bullet goes up with decreasing bullet weight. It also goes up with increasing bore diameter (it also goes up with barrel length, but we are on a pistol forum so won't consider that). The problem is that both of these methods of increasing muzzle velocity reduce the bullet's ballistic coefficent so it sheds energy faster. In the few situations where i've sat down to work these comparisons (exclusively with Barnes bullets and suggested minimum MV from the factory), it seems that the maximum recommended range based on terminal velocity requirements remains relatively constant until I find a bullet with an exceptionally low minimum velocity requirement (hence my comment on the 300BO and 485. Handgun loads in a break action pistol are another good solution. Some times you find your self in the situation of driving a bullet too hard so it breaks up more then you would like).
You've got a wealth of info already in this thread. For ranges under 150-200 yards, most of my thoughts above can be ignored0. If you want to go farther, do some investigation with recommended minimum velocities (email the bullet manufacturer) and a ballistic calculator and estimated achievable muzzle velocities before you make a decision.
Best of luck! Let us know what you end up with and how it shoots!